Анализ ошибок компьютера диагностической картой (POST-карта)

Содержание:

1. Введение
2. Общее описание POST карты
3. Алгоритм работы с POST картой
4. Таблица кодов ошибок
5. Описание звуковых сигналов
6. Сброс забытого пароля к BIOS

Введение

Карта называется POST (Power On Self Test - карта самотестирования). Отображает коды ошибок, при невозможности загрузки операционной системы или нет изображения на экране или нет звуков BIOS.

POST карта

Когда питание подано, BIOS проводит точный тест схемы, памяти, клавиатуры, видеокарты, жёсткого диска, затем анализирует системную конфигурацию. После инициализации базовой системы ввода/вывода идёт загрузка операционной системы.

Диагностическая карта не будет отображать данные в следующих случаях:
1. Карта вставлена в материнскую плату без центрального процессора.
2. Когда горит диод RST LED.

Общее описание POST карты

  • Коды на карте отображаются в определённой последовательности
  • Код может быть не определён
  • Для различных производителей BIOS (AMI, Award, Phoenix), значения кодов различно. (Определение производителя BIOS)
  • Карту можно подключать к PCI и ISA слотам. Обычно коды начинаются с "00" до "FF" на PCI слоте. На некоторых материнских платах код может остановиться на "38"
  • На материнских платах коды ошибок BIOS постоянно обновляются, так что они могут отсутствовать в таблице.
  • На некоторых POST картах могут отсутствовать некоторые светодиоды.
  • Описание светящихся диодов:

    Светодиод
    Тип
    Описание
    RUN
    Мерцание
    Если светодиод горит, материнская плата включена, не имеет значения какие коды проходят
    CLK
    BUS CLOCK
    Горит когда питание подано на материнскую плату (обычно без процессора)
    BIOS
    Считывание BIOS
    Светодиод включается и выключается когда подаётся питание на материнскую плату, при чтении BIOS процессором
    IRDY
    Менеджер готов
    Светодиод включается и выключается когда есть сообщение
    OSC
    Мигание
    Загорается когда подано питание на материнскую плату, или если нет то кристалл колебательного контура сломан
    FRAME
    Период кадра
    Горит всё время. Включается и выключается когда есть сообщение
    RST
    Reset
    Загорается на пол секунды, когда нажимаете на кнопку включения или сброса. Если горит питание, то стоит проверить RESET (замыкает или сломан).
    12V
    Power
    Загорается единожды при включении, подаче питания, если не загорается это означает короткое замыкание на материнской плате или нет 12В.
    -12V
    Питание
    Тоже самое что и "12V"
    5V
    Питание
    Тоже самое что и "12V"
    -5V
    Питание
    Тоже самое что и "12V" (-5V только для ISA слота)
    3V3
    Питание
    Загорается при подаче питания (только PCI), где есть 3,3В. Если нет на материнской плате дежурного напряжения 3,3В - не загорается

    Алгоритм работы с POST картой

    Алгоритм работы с POST картой

    Таблица кодов ошибок

    Код
    Award
    AMI
    Phoenix4.0 / Tendy3000
    00
    Code copying to specific areas is done/Passing control to INT 19h boot loader next.
    01
    Processor Test 1, Processor status (1FLAGS) verification. Test the following processor status flags: carry, zero, sign, overflow.
    The BIOS sets each flag, verifies they are set, then turns each flag off and verifies it is off.
    CPU is testing the register inside or failed, please change the CPU and check it.
    02
    Test All CPU Registers Except SS, SP, and BP with Data FF and 00 Verify Real Mode
    03
    Disable NMI, PIE, AIE, UEI, SQWV
    Disable video, parity checking, DMA
    Reset math coprocessor
    Clear all page registers, CMOS shutdown byte
    Initialize timer 0, 1, and2, including set EISA timer to a known state
    Initialize DMA controllers 0 and 1
    Initialize interrupt controllers 0 and 1
    Initialize EISA extended registers
    Disable NMI, PIE, AIE, UEI, SQThe NMI is disabled. Next, checking for a soft reset or a power on condition Disable Non-Mask-able interrupt (NMI)
    04
    RAM must be periodically refreshed to keep the memory from decaying. This refresh function is working properly Get CPU type
    05
    Keyboard Controller initialization The BIOS stack has been built. Next, disabling cache mamory. DMA initialization in progress or failure
    06
    Reserved Uncompressing the POST code next. Initialized system hardware
    07
    Verifies CMOS is Working Correctly, Detects Bad Battery Next, initializing the CPU data area Disable shadow and execute code from the ROM
    08
    Early chip set initialization
    Memory presence test
    OEM chip set routines
    Clear low 64K memory
    Test first 64K memory
    The CMOS checksum calculation is Initialize chipset with with initial POST values
    09
    Cyrix CPU initialization
    Cach initialization
    Set IN POST flag
    0A
    Initialize first 120 interrupt vectors with SPURIOUS-INT-HDLR and initialize INT 00h-1Fh according to INT-TBL The CMOS checksum calculation is done. Linitializing the CMOS status register for date and time next Initialize CPU registers
    0B
    Test CMOS RAM Checksum. If bad, or INS Key Pressed, Load Defaults The CMOS status register is initialized. Next. Performing any requirect initialization before the keyboard BAT command is issued Enable CPU cach
    0C
    Detect Type of Keyboard Controller and
    Set NUM LOCK Status
    The keyboard controller input butter is free Next, issuing the BAT command to the keyboard controller Initialize caches to initial POST values
    0D
    Detect CPU Clock
    Read CMOS location 14h to find out type of video in use
    Detect and initialize video adapter
    0E
    Test Video Memory, write sign-on message to screen
    Setup shadow RAM? Enable shadew according to setup
    The keyboard controller BAT command result has been verified. Next, performing any necessary initialization after the keyboard controller BAT command test Initialize I/O component
    0F
    Test DMA Cont. 0; BIOS Checksum Test
    Keyboard Detect and initialization
    The initialization after the keyboard controller BAT command test is done. The keyboard command byte is written next Initialization the local bus IDE
    10
    Test DMA Controller 1 Test DMA The keyboard controller command byte is written. Next, issuing the Pin 23 and 24 Blocking and unblocking command Initialize Power Management
    11
    Test DMA Page Registers Next, checking if "End" or "Ins" keys were pressed during power on. Initializing CMOS RAM in every boot AMIBIOS POST option was set in AMIBCP or the "End" key was pressed Load alternate registers with initial POST values
    12
    Reserved Next, disabling DMA controllers 1 and 2 and interrupt controllers 1 and 2 Restore CPU control word during warm boot
    13
    Reserved The video display has been disabled. Port B has been initialized. Next, initializing the chipset initialize PCI Bus Mastering devices
    14
    Test 8254 Timer 0 Counter 2 The 8254 timer test will begin next Initialize keyboard controller
    15
    Verify 8259 Channel 1 interrupts by Turning Off and On the interrupt Lines
    16
    Verify 8259 Channel 2 interrupts by Turning Off and On the interrupt Lines BIOS ROM checksum
    17
    Turn Off interrupts Then Verify No Interrupt Msk Register is On Initialize cach before memory Auto size
    18
    Force an interrupt and Verify the interrupt and Verify the interrupt Occurred 8254 timer initialization
    19
    Test Stuck NMI Bits; Verify NMI Can Be Cieared The 8254 timer test is over. Starting the memory refresh test next
    1A
    Display CPU clock The memory refresh line is toggling. Checking the 15 second on/off time next 8237 DMA controller initialization
    1B
    Reserved
    1C
    Reserved Reset Programmable interrupt Controller
    1D
    Reserved
    1E
    Reserved
    1F
    If EISA non-volatile memory checksum is good, execute EISA initialization
    If not, execute ISA tests an clear
    EISA mode flag
    Test EISA configuration memory
    Integrity (checksum & communication interface)
    20
    Initialize Slot O (System Board) Test DRAM refresh
    21
    Initialize Slot 1
    22
    Initialize Slot 2 Test 8742 Keyboard Controller
    23
    Initialize Slot 3 Reading the 8042 input port and disabling the MEGAKEY Green PC feature next. Making the BIOS code segment writable and performing any necessary configuration before initializing the interrupt vectors
    24
    Initialize Slot 4 The configuration required before interrupt vector initialization has completed. Interrupt vector initialization is about to begin Set ES segment register to 4Gb
    25
    Initialize Slot 5 Interrupt vector initialization is done. Clearing the password if the POST DIAG awitch is on
    26
    1. test the exeptional situation of protected of protected mode, check the memory of cpu and mainboard.
    2. no fateful trouble, VGA displayed normally. If nonfateful trouble occurred, then display error message in VGA otherwise boot operating system, and code "26" is OK code, no any other codes to display
    1. read/write input, output port of 8042 keyboard; ready for revolve mode, continue to get ready for initialization of all data, check the 8042 chips on mainboard.
    2. refere to the left
    1. enable A20 adress line, check the A20 pins of memory controlling chips, and check circuit, correlated to pins, in memory slot, may be A20 pin and memory pins are not in contact, or memory A20 pins bad.
    2. refere to the left
    27
    Initialize Slot 7 Any initialization before setting the video mode will be done next
    28
    Initialize Slot 8 Initialization before setting the video mode is complete. Configuring the monochrome mode and color mode settings next Auto size DRAM
    29
    Initialize Slot 9 Initialize POST Memory Manager
    2A
    Initialize Slot 10 Initializing the different bus system, static, and output devices, if present Clear 512 KB base RAM
    2B
    Initialize Slot 11 Passing control to the video ROM to perform any required configuration before the video ROM test
    2C
    Initialize Slot 12 All necessary processing before passing control to the video ROM is done. Looking for the video ROM next and passing control to it RAM failure on address line xxx*
    2D
    Initialize Slot 13 The video ROM has returned has returned control to BIOS POST Performing any required processing after the video ROM had control
    2E
    Initialize Slot 14 Completed pest-video ROM test processing. If the EGA/VGA controller is not found, performing the display memory Read/write test next RAM failure on data bits Xxxx* of low byte of memory bus
    2F
    Initialize Slot 15 The EGA/VGA controller was not found. The display memory read/write test is about to begin Enable cach before system BIOS shadow
    30
    Size Base Memory From 256K to 640K and Extended Memory Above 1MB The display memory read/write test passed. Look for retrace checking next
    31
    Test Base Memory From 256K to 640K and Extended Memory Above 1MB The display memory read/write test or retrace checking failed. Performing the alternate display memory read/write test next
    32
    If EISA Mode, Test EISA Memory Found in Slots initialization The alternate display memory read/write test passed. Looking for alternate display retrace checking next Test CPU Bus-clock frequency
    33
    Reserved Initialize Phoenix Dispatch manager
    34
    Reserved Video display checking is over. Setting the display mode next
    35
    Reserved
    36
    Reserved Warm start and shut down
    37
    Reserved The display mode is set. Displaying the power on message next
    38
    Reserved Initializing the bus input, IPL, general device next, if present Shadow system BIOS ROM
    39
    Reserved Displaying bus initialization error messages
    3A
    Reserved The new cursor position has been read and saved. Displaying the Hit "Del" message next Auto size cach
    3B
    Reserved The Hit "Del" message is displayed. The protected mode memory test is about to start
    3C
    Setup Enabled Advanced configuration of chipset registers
    3D
    Detect if mouse is present, initialize mouse, install interrupt vectors Load alternate registers with CMOS values
    3E
    Initialize cache controller
    3F
    Reserved
    40
    Display virus protect. Disable or Enable Preparing the descriptor tables next
    41
    Initialize Floppy Disk Drive Controller and any drives Initialize extended memory for RomPilot
    42
    Initialize Hard Drive Controller and any drives The descriptor tables are prepared. Enteling protected mode for the memory test next Initialize interrupt vectors
    43
    Detect and initialize Serial & Parallel Ports and Game Port Entered protected mode. Enabling interrupts for diagnostics mode next
    44
    Reserved Interrupts enabled if the diagnostics switch is on. Initializing data to check memory wraparound at 0:0 next
    45
    Detect and initialize math coprocessor Data initialized. Checking for memory wraparound at 0: 0 and finding the total system memory size next POST device initialization
    46
    Reserved The memory wraparound test is done. Memory size calculation has been done. Writing patterns to tset memory next Check ROM copyright notice
    47
    Reserved The memory pattern has been to extended memory. Writing patterns to the base 640 KB memory Initialize 120 support
    48
    Reserved Patterns written in base memory. Determining the amount of memory below 1MB next Check video configuration against CMOS
    49
    Reserved The amount of memory below 1MB has been found and verified. Determining the amount of memory above 1 MB memory next Initialize PCI bus and devices
    4A
    Reserved Initialize all video adapters in system
    4B
    Reserved The amount of memory above 1MB has been found and verified. Checking for a soft reset and clearing the memory below 1MB for the soft reset next. If this is a power on situation, going to checkpoint 4Eh next QuletBoot start (optional)
    4C
    Reserved The memory below 1MB has been cleared via a soft reset. Clearing the memory above 1MB next Shadow video BIOS ROM
    4D
    Reserved The memory above 1MB has been cleared via a soft reset. Saving the memory size next. Going to checkpoint 52h next
    4E
    Reboot if Manufacturing Mode; if not, Display Messages and Enter Setup The memory test started, but not as the result of a soft reset. Displaying the first 64KB memory size next Display BIOS copyright notice
    4F
    Ask Password Security (Optional) The memory size display has started. The display is updated during the memory test. Performing the sequential and random memory test next Initialize MultiBoot
    50
    Write All CMOS Values Back to RAM and Clear The memory below 1MB has been tested and initialized. Adjusting the displayed memory size fot relocation and shadowing next Display CPU type and speed
    51
    Enable Parity Checker. Enable NMI, Enable Cache Before Boot The memory size display was adjusted for relocation and shadowing. Testing the memory above 1MB next Initialize EISA board
    52
    Initialize Option ROMs from C8000h to EFFFFh or if FSCAN Enabled to F7FFFh The memory above 1MB has been tested and initialized. Saving the memory size information next Test keyboard
    53
    Initialize Time Value in 40h: BIOS Area The memory size information and the CPU registers are saved. Entering real mode next
    54
    Shutdown was successful. The CPU is in real mode. Disabling the Gate A20 line, parity, and the NMI next Set key click if enabled
    55
    56
    Enable USB devices
    57
    The A20 address line, parity, and the NMI are disabled. Adjusting the memory size depending on relocation and shadowing next
    58
    The memory size was adjusted for relocation and shadowing. Clearing the Hit "DEL" message next Test for unexpected interrupts
    59
    The Hit "DEL" message is cleared. The "WAIT..." message is displayed. Starting the DMA and interrupt controller test next Initialize POST display service
    5A
    Display prompt Press F2 to enter SETUP
    5B
    Disable CPU cache
    5C
    Test RAM betweeb 512 and 640 kB
    60
    Setup virus protection (boot sector protection) functionality according to setup setting The DMA page register test passed. Performing the DMA Controller 1 base register test next Test extended memory
    61
    Try to turn on level 2 cach (if L2 cach already turned on in post 3D, this part will be skipped)
    Sat the boot up speed according to setup setting
    Last chance for chipset initialization
    Last chance for power management initialization (Green BIOS Only)
    Show the system configuration table
    62
    Setup the NUM lock. According to setup values
    Programm the NUM lock. Typematic rate & typematic speed according to setup setting
    The DMA controller 1 base register test passed. Performing the DMA controller 2 base register test next Test extended memory address lines
    63
    If there is any changes in the hardware configuration. Update the ESCD information (PnP BIOS only)
    Clear memory that have been used
    Boot system via INT 19h
    64
    Jump to UserPatch1
    65
    The DMA controller 2 base register test passed. Programming DMA controller 1 and 2 next
    66
    Completed programming DMA controllers 1 and 2 initializing the 8259 interrupt controller next Configure advanced cach registers
    67
    Completed 8259 interrupt controller initialization Initialize Multi Processor APIC
    68
    Enable external and CPU caches
    69
    Setup System Management Mode (SSM) area
    6A
    Display external L2 cach size
    6B
    Load custom defaults (optional)
    6C
    Display shadow-area message
    6E
    Display possible high address for UMB recovery
    6F
    70
    Display error message
    71
    72
    Check for configuration errors
    76
    Check for keyboard errors
    7C
    Set up hardware interrupt vectors
    7D
    Initialize intelligent System Monitoring
    7E
    Initialize coprocessor if present
    7F
    Extended NMI source enabling is in progress
    80
    The keyboard test has started. Clearing the output buffer and checking for stuck keys. Issuing the keyboard reset command next Disable onboard Super I/O ports and IRQs
    81
    A keyboard reset error or stuck key was found. Issuing the keyboard controller interface test command next Late POST device initialization
    82
    The keyboard controller interface test completed. Writing the command byte and initializing the circular buffer next Detect and install external RS232 ports
    83
    The command byte was written and global data initialization has completed. Checking for a locked key next Configure non-MCD IDE controllers
    84
    Locked key checking is over. Checking for a memory size mismatch with CMOS RAM data next Detect and install external parallel ports
    85
    The memory size check is done. Displaying a soft error and checking for a password or bypassing WINBIOS Setup next Initialize PC-compatible PnP ISA devices
    86
    The password was checked. Performing any required programming before WINBIOS Setup next Re-initialize onboard I/O ports
    87
    The programming before WINBIOS Setup has completed Uncompressing the WINBIOS Setup code and executing the AMIBIOS Setup or WINBIOS Setup utility next Configure Motherboard Configurable Devices (optional)
    88
    Returned from WINBIOS Setup end cleared the screen. Performing any necessary programming after WINBIOS Setup next Initialize BIOS Data Area
    89
    The programming after WINBIOS Setup has completed. Displaying the power on screen message next Enable Non-Maskable interrupts (NMis)
    8A
    Initialize Extended BIOS Data Area
    8B
    The first screen message has been displayed. The "WAIT..." message is displayed. Performing the PS/2 mouse check and extended BIOS data area allocation check next Test and initialize PS/2 mouse
    8C
    Programming the WINBIOS Setup options next Initialize floppy controller
    8D
    The WINBIOS Setup options are programmed. Resetting the hard disk controller next
    8E
    The hard disk controller has been reset. Configuring the floppy drive controller next
    8F
    Determine number of ATA drives (optional)
    90
    Initialize hard-disk controllers
    91
    The floppy drive controller has been configured. Cjnfiguring the hard disk drive controller next Initialize local-bus hard-disk controllers
    92
    Jump to UserPatch2
    93
    Build MPTABLE for multi-processor board
    95
    Initializing bus adaptor ROMs from C8000h through D8000 Install CD ROM for boot
    96
    Initializing before passing control to the adaptor ROM at C800 Clear huge ES segment register
    97
    Initialation before the C800 adaptor ROM gains control has completed. The adaptor ROM check is next Fix up Multi Processor table
    98
    The adaptor ROM had control and now returned control to BIOS POST. Performing any required processing after the option ROM returned controlA Search for option ROMs. One long, two short beeps on checksum failure
    99
    Any initialization required after the option ROM test has completed. Configuring the timer data area and printer base address next Check for SMART Drive (optional)
    9A
    Set the timer and printer base address. Setting the RS-232 base address next Shadow option ROMs
    9B
    Returned after setting the RS-232 base address. Performing any required initialization before the coprocessor test next
    9C
    Required initialization before the Coprocessor test is over. Initializing the Coprocessor next Set up Power Management
    9D
    Coprocessor initialized Performing any required initialization after the Coprocessor test next Initialize security engine (optional)
    9E
    Initialization after the Coprocessor test is complete. Checking the extended keyboard, keyboard ID, and NumLock key next. Issuing the keyboard ID command next Enable hardware interrupts
    9F
    Determine number of ATA and SCSI drivers
    A0
    Set time of day
    A1
    Check key lock
    A2
    Displaying any soft error next
    A3
    The soft error display has completed. Setting the keyboard typematic rate next
    A4
    The keyboard typematic rate is set. Programming the memory wait states next Initialize typematic rate
    A5
    Memory wait state programming is over. Clearning the screen and enabling parity and the NMI next
    A7
    NMI and parity enabled. Performing any initialization required before passing control to the adaptor ROM at E000 next
    A8
    Initialization before passing control to the adaptor ROM at E000h completed. Passing control to the adaptor ROM at E000h next Erase F2 prompt
    A9
    Returned from adaptor ROM at E000h control. Performing any initialization required after the E000 option ROM had control next
    AA
    Initialization after E000 option ROM control has completed. Displaying the system configuration next Scan for F2 key stroke
    AB
    Uncompressing the DMI data and executing DMI POST initialization next
    AC
    Enter SETUP
    AE
    Clear boot flag
    B0
    If interrupts Occurs in protected mode The system configuration is displayed Check for errors
    B1
    If unmasked NMI Occurs. Display Press F1 to Disable NMI, F2 Reboot Copying any code to specific areas Inform RomPilot about the end of POST
    B2
    POST done prepare to boot operating system
    B3
    B4
    1 One short beep before boot
    B5
    Terminate Quiet Boot (optional)
    B6
    Check password (optional)
    B7
    Initialize ACPI BIOS
    B8
    B9
    Prepare Boot
    BA
    Initialize SMBIOS
    BB
    Initialize PnP Option ROMs
    BC
    Clear parity checkers
    BD
    Display MultiBoot menu
    BE
    Program chipset registers with power on BIOS defaults Clear screen (optional)
    BF
    Program the rest of the chipset's value according to setup (later setup value program)
    If auto configuration is anabled, programmed the chipset with predefined values in the MODBINable Auto Table
    Check virus and backup reminders
    C0
    Turn off OEM specific cach, shadow
    Initialize standard devices with default values: DMA controller (8237); Programmable interrupt Controller (8259); Programmable interval Timer (8254); RTC chip
    Try to boot with INT 19
    C1
    OEM Specific-Test to size On-Board memory Initialize POST error manager (PEM)
    C2
    Initialize error logging
    C3
    Test the first 256K DRAM
    Expand the compressed codes into temporary DRAM area including the compressed system BIOS & Option ROMs
    Initialize error display function
    C4
    Initialize system error handler
    C5
    OEM Specific-Early Shadow Enable for fast boot PnPnd dual CMOS (optional)
    C6
    External Cache Size Detection Initialize note dock (optional)
    C7
    Initialize note dock late
    C8
    Force check (optional)
    C9
    Extended checksum (optional)
    CA
    Redirect int 15h to enable remote keyboard
    CB
    Redirect int 13h to Memory Technologies Devices such as ROM, RAM, PCMCIA, and serial disk
    CC
    Redirect int 10h to enable remote serial video
    CD
    Re-map I/O and memory for PCMCIA
    CE
    Initialize digitizer and display message
    D0
    The NMI is disable. Power on delay is starting. Next, the initialization code checksum will be verified
    D1
    Initializing the DMA controller, performing the keyboard controller BAT test, starting memory refresh, and entering 4GB flat mode next
    D2
    Unknown interrupt
    D3
    Starting memory sizing next
    D4
    Returning to real mode. Executing any OEM patches and setting the stack next
    D5
    Passing control to the uncompressed code in shadow RAM at E000: 0000h. The initialization code is copied to segment 0 and control will be transferred to segment 0
    D6
    Control is in segment 0 Next, checking if "Ctrl" "Home" was pressed and verifying the system BIOS checksum. If either "Ctrl" "Home" was pressed or the system BIOS checksum is bad, next will go to checkpoint code E0h. Otherwise, going to checkpoint code D7h
    E0
    The onboard floppy controller if available is initialized. Next, beginning the base 512 KB memory test Initialize the chipset
    E1
    E1 Setup-Page E1 Initializing the interrupt vector table next Initialize the bridge
    E2
    E2 Setup-Page E2 Initializing the DMA and interrupt controllers next Initialize the CPU
    E3
    E3 Setup-Page E3 Initialize system timer
    E4
    E4 Setup-Page E4 Initialize system I/O
    E5
    E5 Setup-Page E5 Check force recovery boot
    E6
    E6 Setup-Page E6 Enabling the floppy drive controller and Timer IRQs. Enabling internal cach memory Checksum BIOS ROM
    E7
    E7 Setup-Page E7 Go to BIOS
    E8
    E8 Setup-Page E8 Set Huge Segment
    E9
    E9 Setup-Page E9 Initialize Multi Processor
    EA
    EA Setup-Page EA Initialize OEM special code
    EB
    EB Setup-Page EB Initialize PIC and DMA
    EC
    EC Setup-Page EC Initialize Memory type
    ED
    ED Setup-Page ED Initializing the floppy drive Initialize Memory size
    EE
    EE Setup-Page EE Looking for a floppy diskette in drive A: Reading the first sector of the diskette Shadow boot block
    EF
    EF Setup-Page EF A read error occurred while reading the floppy drive in drive A: System memory test
    F0
    Next, searching for the AMIBOOT.ROM file in the root directory Initialize interrupt vectors
    F1
    The AMIBOOT.ROM file is not in the root directory Initialize Run Time Clock
    F2
    Next, reading and analyzing the floppy diskette FAT to find the clusters occupied by the AMIBOOT.ROM file Initialize video
    F3
    Next, reading the AMIBOOT.ROM file, cluster by cluster Initialize System Management Manager
    F4
    The AMIBOOT.ROM file is not the correct size Output one beep
    F5
    Next, disabling internal cach memory Clear Huge Segment
    F6
    Boot to mini DOS
    F7
    Boot to full DOS
    FB
    Next, detecting the type of flash ROM
    FC
    Next, erasing the flash ROM
    FD
    Next, programming the flash ROM
    FF
    Flash ROM programming was successful. Next, restarting the system BIOS

    Описание звуковых сигналов

    AMI BIOS Фатальные ошибки

    1 beep
    DRAM Refresh Failure. Try reseating the memory first. If the error still occurs, replace the memory with known good chips.
    2 beeps
    Parity error in first 64K RAM. Try reseating the memory first. If the error still occurs, replace the memory with known good chips
    3 beeps
    Base 64K RAM Failure. Try reseating the memory first. If the error still occurs, replace the memory with known good chips
    4 beeps
    System timer failure
    5 beeps
    Process failure
    6 beeps
    Keyboard controller 8042-Gate A20 Error. Try reseating the keyboard controller chip. If the error still occurs, replace the keyboard chip. If the error persists, check parts of the system relating to the keyboard, e.g. try another keyboard, check to see if the system has a keyboard fuse
    7 beeps
    Processor, Virtual Mode Exception Interrupt Error
    8 beeps
    Display memory Read/Write test failure (non-fatal). Replace the video card or the memory on the video card
    9 beeps
    ROM BIOS Checksum (32KB at F800:0) Failed. It is not likely that this error can be corrected by reseating the chips. Consult the motherboard supplier or an AMI product distributor for replacement part(s)
    10 beeps
    CMOS shutdown register read/write error
    11 beeps
    Cache memory error

    AMI BIOS звуковые коды (не фатальные ошибки)

    2 short
    POST Failure-one or more of the hardware tests has failed
    1 long 2 short
    An error was encountered in the video BIOS ROM, or a horizontal retrace failure has been encountered
    1 long 3 short
    Conventional/Extended memory failure
    1 long 8 short
    Display/Retrace test failed

    Award BIOS звуковые коды

    1 short
    No error during POST
    2 short
    Any Non-fatal error, enter CMOS SETUP to reset
    1 long 1 short
    RAM or motherboard error
    1 long 2 short
    Video error, cannot initialize screen to display any information
    1 long 3 short
    Keyboard controller error
    1 long 9 short
    Flash RAM/EPROM (which on the motherboard) error. (BIOS error)
    long beep
    Memory bank is not plugged well, or broken

    Phoenix BIOS звуковые коды

    Звуковые коды
    Описание/Что проверять?
    1-1-1-3
    Verify real mode
    1-1-2-1
    Get CPU type
    1-1-2-3
    Initialize system hardware
    1-1-3-1
    Initialize chipset registers with initial POST values
    1-1-3-2
    Set in POST flag
    1-1-3-3
    Initialize CPU registers
    1-1-4-1
    Initialize cache to mitial POST values
    1-1-4-3
    Initialize I/O
    1-2-1-1
    Initialize Power management
    1-2-1-2
    Load alternate registers with initial POST values
    1-2-1-3
    Jump to User Patch0
    1-2-2-1
    Initialize keyboard controller
    1-2-2-3
    BIOS ROM checksum
    1-2-3-1
    8254 timer initialization
    1-2-3-3
    8237 DMA controller initialization
    1-2-4-1
    Reset programmable interrupt controller
    1-3-1-1
    Test DRAM refresh
    1-3-1-3
    Test 8742 keyboard controller
    1-3-2-1
    Set ES segment to register to 4GB
    1-3-3-1
    28 Autosize DRAM
    1-3-3-3
    Clear 512K base RAM
    1-3-4-1
    Test 512K base address lines
    1-3-4-3
    Test 512K base memory
    1-4-1-3
    Test CPU BUS-clock frequency
    1-4-2-4
    Reinitialize the chipset
    1-4-3-1
    Shadow system BIOS ROM
    1-4-3-2
    Reinitialize the cache
    1-4-3-3
    Autosize cache
    1-4-4-1
    Configure advanced chipset registers
    1-4-4-2
    Load alternate registers with CMOS values
    2-1-1-1
    Set initial CPU speed
    2-1-1-3
    Initialize interrupt vectors
    2-1-2-1
    Initialize BIOS interrupts
    2-1-2-3
    Check ROM copyright notice
    2-1-2-4
    Initialize manager for PCI options ROMs
    2-1-3-1
    Check video configuration against CMOS
    2-1-3-2
    Initialize PCI bus and devices
    2-1-3-3
    Initialize all video adapters in system
    2-1-4-1
    Shadow video BIOS ROM
    2-1-4-3
    Display copyright notice
    2-2-1-1
    Display CPU typE and speed
    2-2-1-3
    Test keyboard
    2-2-2-1
    Set key click if enabled
    2-2-2-3
    56 enable keyboard
    2-2-3-1
    Test for unexpected interrupts
    2-2-3-3
    Display prompt "press F2 to enter SETUP"
    2-2-4-1
    Test RAM between 512 and 640k
    2-3-1-1
    Test expanded memory
    2-3-1-3
    Test expanded memory address lines
    2-3-2-1
    Jump to user patch1
    2-3-2-3
    Configure advanced cache registers
    2-3-3-1
    Enable external and CPU caches
    2-3-3-3
    Display extemal cache size
    2-3-4-1
    Display shadow massage
    2-3-4-3
    Display non-disposable segments
    2-4-1-1
    Display error massages
    2-4-1-3
    Check for configuration errors
    2-4-2-1
    Test real-time clock
    2-4-2-3
    Check for keyboard errors
    2-4-4-1
    Set up hardware interrupts vectors
    2-4-4-3
    Test coprocessor of present
    3-1-1-1
    Display onboard I/O ports
    3-1-1-3
    Detect and install external Rs232 ports
    3-1-2-1
    Detect and install external parallel ports
    3-1-2-3
    Re-initialize onboard I/O ports
    3-1-3-1
    Initialize BIOS data area
    3-1-3-3
    Initialize extended BIOS data area
    3-1-4-1
    Initialize floppy controller
    3-2-1-1
    Initialize hard-disk controller
    3-2-1-2
    Initialize local-bus hard-disk controller
    3-2-1-3
    Jump to userPatch2
    3-2-2-1
    Disable A20 address line
    3-2-2-3
    Clear huge ES segment register
    3-2-3-1
    Search for option ROMs

    IBM BIOS звуковые коды

    Звуковые коды
    Описание
    No beeps
    No Power, Loose card or short
    1 short beep
    Normal POST, computer is ok
    2 short beep
    POST error, review screen for error code
    Continuous beep
    No power, loose card, or short
    Repeating short beep
    No power, loose card, or short
    One long and one short beep
    Motherboard issue
    One long and two short beeps
    Video (EGA) display circuitry
    Three long beeps
    Keyboard / keyboard card error
    One beep, blank or incorrect display
    Video display circuitry

    Сброс забытого пароля к BIOS

    AMI пароли:

    AMI AMI Bios310 AMI! SW KILLSMOS
    A. M. I 589589 SMOSPWD AMISETUP ami. kez
    BIOS ammii AMI SW ami? AMI. KEY
    AMI SW amipswd amidecod amiami
    PASSWORD LKWPETER BIOSPASS AMIPSWD

    Award пароли:

    PASSWORD HLT biostar ?award djonet
    AWARD SW ALFAROME J09F 1EAAh g6PJ
    AWARD?SW 256256 j256 admin HELGA-S
    AWARE PW 589721 LKWPETER ally HLT

    Другие BIOS:

    Phoenix BIOS: phoenix Megastar: star
    Biostar Biostar: Q54arwms Micron: sldkj754xyzall
    Compag: compag Micronies: dn 04rie
    CTX international: CTX_123 Packard Bell: bell9
    Dell: Dell Shuttle: spacve
    Digital Equipment: komprie Siements Nixdorf: SKY FOX
    HP Vectra: hewlpack Tinys: tiny
    IBM: IBM MBIUO sertafu TMC: BIGO

    Сброс пароля BIOS программно.

    CMOS ROM может быть сброшен программно, используя командную строку, командой debug (Работает только до Windows 7 версии, в 8-ке не работает).

    Сброс Award BIOS пароля:
    C:\>debug
    -o 70 34 "Enter"
    -o 71 34 "Enter"
    -q "Enter"
    или
    C:\>debug
    -o 70 11 "Enter"
    -o 71 11 "Enter"
    -q "Enter"

    Сброс AMI BIOS пароля:
    C:\>debug
    -o 70 16 "Enter"
    -o 71 16 "Enter"
    -q "Enter"
    или
    C:\>debug
    -o 70 10 "Enter"
    -o 71 0 "Enter"
    -q "Enter"

    Сброс Phoenix BIOS пароля:
    C:\>debug
    -o 70 ff "Enter"
    -o 71 17 "Enter"
    -q "Enter"

    Как выглядит в командной строке:

    Сброс пароля BIOS с командной строки

    Настройки BIOS будут стёрты, так что при следующей загрузки системы, возможно надо будет изменить настройки (например если у Вас очередность запуска дисков другая, то надо переназначить, а то система не загрузится).

    Аппаратный сброс CMOS BIOS перемычкой

  • Выключите компьютер полностью от сети
  • Переключите перемычку из положения 1-2, в положение 2-3
  • Включите питание, перезагрузите компьютер
  • Выключите компьютер. Верните перемычку в положение 1-2
  • Включите компьютер, настройки BIOS должны быть сброшены
  • Обычно хватает выполнения двух первых пунктов, только перемычку верните в исходное положение. Можно просто замкнуть отвёрткой штырьки, если перемычка отсутствует. Штырьки обычно подписаны на материнской плате: Clear CMOS, CL_CMOS , CRTC , CCMOS , CL_RTC, Clean CMOS, CMOS ROM Reset. Или можно просто вытащить батарейку.

    Перемычка для аппаратного сброса настроек BIOS

    Можно воспользоваться универсальной утилитой CMOS De-Animator для сброса настроек BIOS программно. Может сохранять настройки в файл и восстанавливать их. Скачать с официального сайта CMOS De-Animator

    Утилита CMOS De-Animator для сброса настроек BIOS

    И небольшая табличка, подсказка какими клавишами можно зайти в настройки BIOS:

    BIOS
    Клавиши
    Подсказка на экране
    AMI "Del" или "Esc" Отображается
    Award "Del" или "Ctrl"+"Alt"+"Esc" Отображается
    MR "Del" или "Ctrl"+"Alt"+"Esc" Не отображается
    Quadtel "F2" Отображается
    COMPAQ Нажать "F10" когда курсор появится в правом верхнем углу экрана Не отображается
    AST "Del"+"Alt"+"S" Не отображается
    Phoenix "Del"+"Alt"+"S" Не отображается
    Hewlett Packard (HP) "F2" Не отображается

    Добавлено: 30.6.2016 • : 9459

    Автор: Владимир (safecomp.me)

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